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British policy towards the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1914.

Heller, Joseph (1971) British policy towards the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1914. PhD thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom).

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Abstract

When the Young Turk Revolution took place in July 1908 Britain was careful to give its makers a cautious welcome but she limited her practical assistance to verbal sympathy and the supplying of a few advisers. Both the FO and the Embassy were critical of the new regime from the very beginning. This opinion was confirmed by the failure of the Young Turks to carry out their promises to establish a constitutional regime. However, the ineffectiveness of Britain's sympathy was demonstrated when the Porte happened to be governed by liberal statesmen at the time of the Ottoman Empire's most difficult external crises. It became manifest that Britain could not back her verbal sympathy with any substantial action through reasons concerned with the balance of power. Her friendship with Russia and the constant anxiety as to her position in the Gulf and Mesopotamia added to her fear of the impact of Pan-Islam upon the welfare of India and Egypt and also the failure of the new regime to establish equality for the Christians in the European provinces - these all served as excellent reasons for Britain to shelve her sympathy. The result was growing estrangement and enmity coupled with despair as to the ability of the Ottoman Empire to face successive external blows. The growth of German influence played only a secondary role in Britain's policy, particularly after the Ottoman defeat in late 1912. Britain, however, found herself, quite willingly, on the side of the Balkan States. Nothing, therefore, could have been done by Mallet, who tried to reverse the policy of both Whitehall and the Embassy. This futile attempt was foredoomed because the FO did not give any indication that a new favourable police was being contemplated. The Young Turks found themselves willy-nilly on Germany's side as a result of the Balkan Wars. This was realized by Britain only after the "Goeben" and the "Breslau" entered the Dardanelles.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: History, European, Political Science, International Relations
Sets: Collections > ProQuest Etheses
URI: http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/1987

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