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The influence of intelligence-led policing models on investigative policy and practice in mainstream policing 1993-2007: division, resistance and investigative orthodoxy

James, Adrian (2011) The influence of intelligence-led policing models on investigative policy and practice in mainstream policing 1993-2007: division, resistance and investigative orthodoxy. PhD thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).

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Abstract

This research addressed the question ‘What is the National Intelligence Model (NIM), why did it emerge and how has it influenced police organisational structures and investigative practice’? The NIM embodied the apotheosis of intelligence-led policing (ILP) policy in Britain. Allied to the pre-existing ‘intelligence cycle’, it represented an eclectic ‘pick n’ mix’ of strategies that aimed to deliver effectiveness and ‘best value’ in policing. Sir David Phillips, sponsor of the model and President of the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), during a key period in its development, wanted it to overhaul intelligence work, and revolutionise investigative practice in the mainstream. Through archival, secondary and primary research, the thesis examined the NIM’s policy content in the context of Kingdon’s ‘Agenda Setting’ approach to policymaking. It evaluated the roll-out of the NIM through the lens of Sabatier’s policy implementation model, drawing on primary research in the form of case studies that included observations and interviews with senior police commanders, officers and other officials. Ultimately, Phillips’ plans were confused by commanders’ orthodoxy and frustrated both by competing agendas within ACPO and the paucity of evidence that the NIM could deliver what he had promised. Phillips’ policy entrepreneurship was the key factor in the model gaining support in ACPO and the Home Office. However, beyond that policymaking arena, few commanders were willing to effect the structural changes that the Home Office-codified model demanded. Instead, they seemed to adopt ‘compliance’ tactics that disguised resistance and forestalled sanction. Orthodoxy, resistance and tradition played significant parts in the resulting ‘NIM-compliant’ activity in forces as, with few complaints, officers and staff dutifully applied the model in a myriad of inefficient ways. Ultimately, the NIM added to the burden of bureaucracy but the end result was that British policing ended up looking very much the way it had before the NIM narrative began.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information: © 2011 Adrian James
Library of Congress subject classification: H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
Sets: Departments > Social Psychology
Supervisor: Newburn, Tim
URI: http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/221

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