Ferguson, David G.
(2013)
Topics in graph colouring and graph structures.
PhD thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
Abstract
This thesis investigates problems in a number of different areas of graph theory. These problems are related in the sense that they mostly concern the colouring or structure of the underlying graph. The first problem we consider is in Ramsey Theory, a branch of graph theory stemming from the eponymous theorem which, in its simplest form, states that any sufficiently large graph will contain a clique or anticlique of a specified size. The problem of finding the minimum size of underlying graph which will guarantee such a clique or anticlique is an interesting problem in its own right, which has received much interest over the last eighty years but which is notoriously intractable. We consider a generalisation of this problem. Rather than edges being present or not present in the underlying graph, each is assigned one of three possible colours and, rather than considering cliques, we consider cycles. Combining regularity and stability methods, we prove an exact result for a triple of long cycles. We then move on to consider removal lemmas. The classic Removal Lemma states that, for n sufficiently large, any graph on n vertices containing o(n^3) triangles can be made trianglefree by the removal of o(n^2) edges. Utilising a coloured hypergraph generalisation of this result, we prove removal lemmas for two classes of multinomials. Next, we consider a problem in fractional colouring. Since finding the chromatic number of a given graph can be viewed as an integer programming problem, it is natural to consider the solution to the corresponding linear programming problem. The solution to this LPrelaxation is called the fractional chromatic number. By a probabilistic method, we improve on the best previously known bound for the fractional chromatic number of a trianglefree graph with maximum degree at most three. Finally, we prove a weak version of Vizing's Theorem for hypergraphs. We prove that, if H is an intersecting 3uniform hypergraph with maximum degree D and maximum multiplicity m, then H has at most 2D+m edges. Furthermore, we prove that the unique structure achieving this maximum is m copies of the Fano Plane.
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